International agreements and organisations

Estonia has acceded to all major global and regional nature conservation conventions and other international agreements


International cooperation on the environment aims to contribute to the improvement of the global environment, the implementation of the principles of sustainable development, and the growth of environmental awareness [1].


International cooperation on nature conservation is essential. A good example of this is the protection of migratory birds: if species nesting in Estonia were to be intensively hunted during their migration to and from wintering grounds, the measures implemented in Estonia would not be enough to protect these species. The abundance of migratory birds can only be increased with the cooperation between many countries [1].


International cooperation is often also just a sign of solidarity to other countries in their nature conservation efforts. For example, many countries take part in the protection of whales, including those who have no whales in their waters. As a result of strong international pressure, most countries have put an end to whaling [1].


The environmental protection cooperation that Estonia is a part of can be divided into four levels [1]:

  • bilateral cooperation, i.e. cooperation between countries;
  • regional cooperation, i.e. cooperation with Nordic countries;
  • cooperation with European countries, especially in the framework of the European Union;
  • global cooperation.

In order to strengthen international partnerships, Estonia has acceded to the most important global and regional conventions (multilateral international agreements, which have mostly been developed by some international organisations) and other international agreements. In addition, Estonia has concluded bilateral environmental protection agreements with all our neighbouring countries [2].


In addition to the governmental level, international cooperation can also take place, for example, between zoos and botanical gardens, museums, educational and research institutions, and societies and associations [1].



Last modified: 27.12.2021





[1] Rahvusvaheline koostöö looduse kaitsel. Pärnumaa Kutsehariduskeskus.

[2] Euroopa Liit ja rahvusvaheline koostöö. Keskkonnaministeerium.